Assessment of Histopathological Damages in African Catfish (Clarias garienpinus) as Influenced by Nittol Detergent Aquatic Pollution in Nigeria

Main Article Content

E. A. Ivon
N. A. Etangetuk
G. M. Ubi
C. O. Anyanwu
A. N. Nkang
A. P. Ekanem

Abstract

Toxicity of Nittol detergent on the histopathology of the African catfish (C. gariepinus) sub adult was investigated. The experiment was conducted in triplicates of four treatments. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to different concentrations of Nittol detergent ranged from erratic swimming, moribund movement, jumping and lack of balance. Similar changes were not observed in the control throughout the experiment. Nittol detergent is composed of linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonate (LABS), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), sodium carbonate, sodium sulphate, sodium perborate and sodium silicate (perfume) as active ingredients. The fish were exposed to concentrations 1.0 g/L, 2.0 g/L, 3.0 g/L and 4.0 g/L. At 1.0 g/l concentration, the mean mortality was 80% with an initial erratic swimming. It was observed that mean mortality increased drastically with increase in concentration of the pollutant (Nittol detergent). At concentration 3.0 g/L, total mortality was observed within 72 hours of exposure preceding moribund swimming while total mortality was observed in 4.0 g/L. The concentration at which 50% of the experimental fish were killed (LC50) was 1.9 g/L. Results from statistical analysis indicated that mortality varied (p<0.05) significantly with concentrations as higher values recorded higher mortalities. However, mean values showed highest mortality (74%) with Nittol detergent. Histopathology of the liver of fish exposed to Nittol after 96hrs revealed severe damage and necrosis of the liver cells when compared with the control which had a normal distribution of hepatic cells. Similarly, results from histopathology of the gills of the exposed fish to Nittol detergent revealed fusion and damages to gills lamellae when compared with the control which has normal distribution of the gills lamellae. Severe changes in the epithelia of the gill arch were also observed. Findings from histopathology of the intestine also revealed severe damages to the intestinal walls and mucosa when compared with the control. Images from the histopathology of the gills revealed severe damages to the gill lamellae by the Nittol detergent whereas the control showed a normal distribution of gills lamellae. And in the same vein, histopathology result on the effect of Nittol Detergent on the intestine of the exposed fish revealed chronic damages to the intestinal mucosa when viewed with motic electron microscope at x10 magnification. It was therefore concluded that Nittol Detergent causes significant and severe damages to C. gariepinus and recommended the control disposal of this detergent into aquatic bodies to reduce the negative impact on the histopathology of aquatic organisms.

Keywords:
Nittol detergent, histopathological effect, African catfish, aquatic pollution

Article Details

How to Cite
Ivon, E. A., Etangetuk, N. A., Ubi, G. M., Anyanwu, C. O., Nkang, A. N., & Ekanem, A. P. (2020). Assessment of Histopathological Damages in African Catfish (Clarias garienpinus) as Influenced by Nittol Detergent Aquatic Pollution in Nigeria. Annual Research & Review in Biology, 35(4), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i430206
Section
Original Research Article

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