Annual Research & Review in Biology <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of <strong>Annual Research &amp; Review in Biology (ARRB)</strong> <strong>(ISSN: 2347-565X)</strong> <strong>(Previous name:</strong> <strong>Annual Review &amp; Research in Biology, ISSN: 2231-4776</strong>) is to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/ARRB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) with broad areas of Aerobiology, &nbsp;Agriculture, Anatomy, Astrobiology, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Bioinformatics, Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology, Biomechanics, Biomedical research, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Building biology, Botany, Cell biology, Conservation Biology, Cryobiology, Developmental biology, Food biology, Ecology, Embryology, Entomology, Environmental Biology, Epidemiology, Ethology, Evolutionary Biology, Genetics, Herpetology, Histology, Ichthyology, Integrative biology, Limnology,&nbsp; Mammalogy, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Mycology, Neurobiology, Oceanography, Oncology, Ornithology, Population biology, Population ecology, Population genetics, Paleontology, Pathobiology or pathology, Parasitology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Psychobiology, Sociobiology, Structural biology, Virology and&nbsp; Zoology. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Annual Research & Review in Biology 2347-565X Comparative Functional Studies on Two Diploid Cotton Genomes Reveals Functional Differences of Basic Helix-loop-helix Proteins in Arabidopsis Trichome Initiation <p><strong>Background: </strong>The cultivated tetraploid cotton species (AD genomes) was originated from two ancestral diploid species (A and D genomes). While the ancestral A-genome species produce spinnable fibers, the D- genome species do not. Cotton fibers are unicellular trichomes originating from seed coat epidermal cells, and currently there is an immense interest in understanding the process of fiber initiation and development. Current knowledge demonstrates that there is a great of deal of resemblance in initiation mechanism between by Arabidopsis trichome and cotton fiber.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>In this study, we performed comparative functional studies between A genome and D-genome species in cotton by using Arabidopsis trichome initiation as a model. Four cotton genes TTG3, MYB2, DEL61 and DEL65 were amplified from A-genome and D-genome species, and transformed into their homolog trichomeless mutants Arabidopsis <em>ttg1</em>, <em>gl1</em>, and <em>gl3egl3</em>, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Our data indicated that the transgenic plants expressing TTG3 and MYB2 genes from A-genome and D-genome species complement the <em>ttg1</em> and <em>gl1</em> mutants, respectively. We also discovered complete absences of two functional basic helix loop helix (bHLH) proteins (DEL65/DEL61) in D- diploid species and one (DEL65) that is functional in A-genome species, but not from D-genome species. This observation is consistent with the natural phenomenon of spinnable fiber production in A- genome species and absence in D-genome species.</p> Anh Phu Nam Bui Vimal Kumar Balasubramanian Thuan-Anh Nguyen-Huu Tuan-Loc Le Hoang Dung Tran ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-10 2020-01-10 1 12 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i230146 Side Differences in the Skull of Sheep: An Assessment by Geometric Morphometrics <p>Effects of perturbations during development can be due to environmental and/or genetic factors, resulting in increased developmental instability which in turn can be expressed as fluctuating asymmetry (FA), defined as the non-directional deviation (right-left differences) from bilateral symmetry. However, other asymmetry types can appear, such as and directional asymmetry (DA), characterized by a distribution skewed to one side (right or left) at the, which is originated as a response to external stimuli that affect differentially on both sides of the organism. In order to describe asymmetric patterns in the ovine skull, we studied 165 specimens from animals belonging to the sheep breed “Navarra” from North Spain, using geometric morphometric methods. On digital pictures, we analyzed two midline and 8 bilateral two-dimensional landmarks on skull dorsal aspect. Results showed that FA accounted for a reduced amount of total variation, while DA explained most of it. We suggest that the presence of side differences due to lateralized muscular function (mastication) is the most important factor in skull asymmetry. Obtained results should provide a basis for relating asymmetries to the mechanics of cranial skeletum in sheep.</p> P. M. Parés-Casanova A. Tolić R. Carnicero ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-16 2020-01-16 1 7 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i230147