Morphological Variability and Taxonomic Relationship of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Accessions Based on Qualitative Characters

Main Article Content

Ika Nugraheni Ari Martiwi
Laurentius Hartanto Nugroho
Budi Setiadi Daryono
Ratna Susandarini


Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench is a member of Poaceae family with three agronomic types corresponds to their specific uses namely grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, and forage sorghum. Although sorghum in Indonesia is considered as under-utilized crop, but it has the potential as an alternative resource for staple food in diversification program to support food security. The potential of sorghum as alternative staple food is due to its high nutritional value, and the ability to grow well in marginal lands with maintaining good productivity. The objectives of this study were to assess the extent of morphological variability and to resolve taxonomic relationship of sorghum accessions from Java Island based on morphological characters. Twenty nine sorghum samples were collected from three provinces in Java, namely Central Java, Special Province of Yogyakarta, and East Java. Morphological data observed refers to Descriptors for Sorghum, generating 19 qualitative characters used in cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Cluster analysis resulted in the grouping of 29 accessions into three groups corresponding to the racial classification of sorghum. Results of principal component analysis showed that the main distinguishing characters between groups were inflorescence compactness and shape, glume coverage, presence or absence of awn, presence or absence of grain sub-coat, grain shape, and grain color. Analysis of correlation showed that there were very strong relationship between glume coverage and the presence of awn, and between the presence of grain sub-coat and grain color. Results of this study revealed that sorghum accessions cultivated on Java Island consisted of four races namely Bicolor, Guinea, Caudatum, and Kafir.

Sorghum, morphology, phonetics, characterization, classification.

Article Details

How to Cite
Martiwi, I. N. A., Nugroho, L. H., Daryono, B. S., & Susandarini, R. (2020). Morphological Variability and Taxonomic Relationship of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Accessions Based on Qualitative Characters. Annual Research & Review in Biology, 35(6), 40-52.
Original Research Article


Turner MF, Heuberger AL, Kirkwood JS, Collins CC, Wolfrum EJ, Broeckling CD, Prenni JE, John CE. Non-targeted metabolomics in diverse sorghum breeding lines indicates primary and secondary metabolite profiles are associated with plant biomass accumulation and photosynthesis. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2016;7:953.
DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2016.00953

Alhajturki D, Al Jamali M, Kanbar A. Genetic variation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) varieties assessed by ISSR Markers. Advances in Environmental Biology. 2011;5:3504-3510.

Derese SA, Shimelis H, Mwadzingeni L, Laing M. Agro-morphological characterisation and selection of sorghum landraces. ActaAgriculturaeScandinavica, Section B – Soil & Plant Science. 2018; 68(7):585-595.
DOI: 10.1080/09064710.2018.1448884

Alfieri M, Balconi C, Cabassi G, Habyarimana E, Redaelli R. Antioxidant activity in a set of Sorghum landraces and breeding lines. Maydica. 2017;62: M23.

Dahlberg JA. Classification and characterization of sorghum. In: Smith CW, Frederiksen RA (Eds.). Sorghum: Origin, History, Technology, and Production. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York; 2000.

Dahlberg JA. Classifying the genetic diversity of sorghum: A revised classification of sorghum. In: Rooney W. (Ed.) Achieving Sustainable Cultivation of Sorghum Volume 1: Genetics, Breeding and Production Techniques. Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing, Cambridge, UK; 2018.

Ayana A, Bekele E. Geographical patterns of morphological variation in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) germplasm from Ethiopia and Eritrea: Quantitative characters. Euphytica. 2000;115:91–104.

Bhusal N, Pahuja SK, Vats AK, Srivastava A, Kumar RS. Morphological characterization of forage sorghum genotypes for its various DUS traits. Journal of Applied and Natural Science. 2017;9(2):912-919.

Naoura G, Sawadogo N, Atchozou EA, Emendack Y, Hassan MA, Reoungal D, Amos DN, Djirabaye N, Tabo R, Laza H. Assessment of agro-morphological variability of dry-season sorghum cultivars in Chad as novel sources of drought tolerance. Scientific Reports. 2019;9: 19581.

Okeno JA, Mutegi E, de Villiers S, Wolt JD, Misra MK. Morphological variation in the wild-weedy complex of Sorghum bicolor in situ in Western Kenya: Preliminary evidence of crop-to-wild gene flow? International Journal of Plant Sciences. 2012;173(5):507-515.

Mofokeng AM, Shimelis HA, Laing MD. Agromorphological diversity of South African sorghum genotypes assessed through quantitative and qualitative phenotypic traits. South African Journal of Plant and Soil. 2017;34(5):361-370.
DOI: 10.1080/02571862.2017.1319504

Missihoun AA, Adoukonou-Sagbadja H, Ezin V, Sedah P, Dagba RA, Ahanhanzo C, Agbangla C. Phenotypic variability and racial classification of landraces of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) collected in the Northwestern Benin. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2015;7(4):23-35.

Gebrie G, Genet T. Morphological characterization and evaluation of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] landraces in Benishangul Gumuz, North-western Ethiopia. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;9(1):37-56.

Muui CW, Muasya RM, Kirubi DT. Identification and evaluation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) germplasm from Eastern Kenya. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 20138(37):4573-4579.
DOI: 10.5897/AJAR11.1519

Mukkun L, Lalel HJD, Richana N, Pabendon MB, Kleden SR. The diversity of local sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in Nusa Tenggara Timur province. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2018;144:012065.
DOI :10.1088/1755-1315/144/1/012065

Tnunay IMY, Chikmawati T, Miftahudin. Morphological Diversity of Local Sorghum Cultivar (Sorghum bicolor) of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education. 2019; 11(1):47-54.

Muttaqin AS, Gunardi, Kusuma FA. Suitability analysis of Sorghum based on rainfall and land condition in Gunungkidul Indonesia. Proceeding of International Conference on Climate Change. 2016;242-247.

Sulistyawati, Roeswitawati D, Ibrahim JT, Maftuchah. Genetic diversity of local sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes of East Java, Indonesia for agro-morphological and physiological traits. Biodiversitas. 2019;20:2503-2510.
DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d200910

IBPGR and ICRISAT. Descriptors for Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Italy; International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, India; 1993.

Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD. PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica. 2001;4(1)art. 4:9.

Abdi A, Bekele E, Asfaw Z, Teshome A. Patterns of morphological variation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) landraces in qualitative characters in North Shewa and South Welo, Ethiopia. Hereditas. 2002;137:161–172.

Durrishahwar, Noor M, Hidayat-ur-Rahman, Ihteramullah, Shah IA, Ali F, Shah SMA, Mehmod N. Characterization of sorghum germplasm for various morphological and fodder yield parameters. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2012;11(56):11952-11959.
DOI: 10.5897/AJB11.4000

Dossou-Aminon I, Loko LY, Adjatin A, Ewédjè EBK, Dansi A, Rakshit S, Cissé N, Patil JV. Genetic divergence in Northern Benin sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) landraces as revealed by agromorphological traits and selection of candidate genotypes. The Scientific World Journal. 2015;Article ID 916476:10.

Verma R, Ranwah BR, Bharti B, Kumar R, Kunwar R, Diwaker A, Meena M. Characterization of sorghum germplasm for various qualitative traits. Journal of Applied and Natural Science. 2017;9(2): 1002-1007.

Su X, Rhodes D, Xu J, Chen X, Davis H, Wang D, Herald TJ, Wang W. Phenotypic diversity of anthocyanins in sorghum accessions with various pericarp pigments. Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences. 2017;7:610.

Choi SC, Kim JM, Lee YG, Kim C. Antioxidant activity and contents of total phenolic compounds and anthocyanins according to grain colour in several varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Cereal Research Communications. 2019; 47(2):228–238.
DOI: 10.1556/0806.47.2019.14

Carvalho PR, Munita CS, Lapolli AL. Validity studies among hierarchical methods of cluster analysis using cophenetic correlation coefficient. International Nuclear Atlantic Conference - INAC 2017, Brazil, October 22-27, Associação Brasileira de Energia Nuclear – ABEN; 2017.

Chikuta S, Odong T, Kabi F, Rubaihayo P. Phenotypic diversity of selected dual purpose forage and grain sorghum genotypes. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 2015;9(6):1-9.
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/20577

Desmae H, Jordan DR, Godwin ID. Geographic patterns of phenotypic diversity in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) landraces from North Eastern Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016;11(33):3111-3122.
DOI: 10.5897/AJAR2016.11121

Ugwuanyim GU. The usefulness of clustering and principalcomponent analysis in the classification of plants to species level. African Journal of Natural Sciences. 2000;3:29-36.

Matheri F, Mwangi M, Runo S, Ngugi M, Kirubi DT, Teya F, Mawia AM, Kioko FW, Kamau DN. Phenotypic characterization of selected Kenyan purple and yellow passion fruit genotypes based onmorpho-agronomic descriptors. Advances in Crop Science and Technology. 2016;4(4):226.
DOI: 10.4172/2329-8863.1000226

Mulima E, Sibiya J, Musvosvi C, Nhamucho E. Identification of important morphological traits in Mozambican sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] germplasm using multivariate analysis. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018;13(34):1796-1810.
DOI: 10.5897/AJAR2018.13316

Roy B, Mukhopadhyay B, Paria ND. Phenetic analysis of seedling morphology of some members of Amaranthaceae. Research Journal of Life Sciences, Bioinformatics, Phamaceutical and Chemical Sciences. 2019;5(3):301-321.
DOI: 10.26479/2019.0503.25

Patil P, Sutar S, Malik SK, John J, Yadav S, Bhat KV. Numerical taxonomy of AbelmoschusMedik. (Malvaceae) in India. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy. 2015;22(2):87-98.

Igbari AD, Nodza GI, Adeusi AD, Ogundipe OT. Morphological characterization of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars from South-West Nigeria. Ife Journal of Science. 2019;21(1):155-163. DOI:

Sinha S, Kumaravadivel N. Understanding genetic diversity of sorghum using quantitative traits. Scientifica. 2016;Article ID3075023:8.

Kavithamani D, Yuvaraja A, Selvi B. Principal component analysis and grouping of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) gene pool for genetic diversity. Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding. 2019;10(4): 1426-1434.
DOI: 10.5958/0975-928X.2019.00182.0

Kanbar A, Shakeri E, Alhajturki D, Horn T, Emam Y, Tabatabaei SA, Nick P. Morphological and molecular characterization of sweet, grain and forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) genotypes grown under temperate climatic conditions, Plant Biosystems - An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology; 2019.
DOI: 10.1080/11263504.2019.1569568

Gueye T, Sine B, Cisse N, Diatta C, Ndiaye S. Characterization of phenotypic diversity of sorghum collection for developing breeding material. International Journal of Sciences. 2016; 5(2):38-48.
DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.931.