Annual Research & Review in Biology 2021-04-12T04:14:05+00:00 Annual Research & Review in Biology Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of <strong>Annual Research &amp; Review in Biology (ARRB)</strong> <strong>(ISSN: 2347-565X)</strong> <strong>(Previous name:</strong> <strong>Annual Review &amp; Research in Biology, ISSN: 2231-4776</strong>) is to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/ARRB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) with broad areas of Aerobiology, &nbsp;Agriculture, Anatomy, Astrobiology, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Bioinformatics, Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology, Biomechanics, Biomedical research, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Building biology, Botany, Cell biology, Conservation Biology, Cryobiology, Developmental biology, Food biology, Ecology, Embryology, Entomology, Environmental Biology, Epidemiology, Ethology, Evolutionary Biology, Genetics, Herpetology, Histology, Ichthyology, Integrative biology, Limnology,&nbsp; Mammalogy, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Mycology, Neurobiology, Oceanography, Oncology, Ornithology, Population biology, Population ecology, Population genetics, Paleontology, Pathobiology or pathology, Parasitology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Psychobiology, Sociobiology, Structural biology, Virology and&nbsp; Zoology. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Evaluation of the response of Turkey strains to Salmonella and Newcastle vaccines 2021-04-11T17:27:12+00:00 Ekei Victor Ikpeme <p>This research work was carried out to evaluate the immune response of 3 turkey strains to salmonella and Newcastle vaccines measured via antibody titre. The study deployed a total of 120 poults (40 black, 40 white and 40 lavender) strains. To ascertain the initial antibody titre of all the birds, blood samples were obtained from their wing veins immediately after acclimatization for salmonella and Newcastle antibody titre.&nbsp; The test for salmonella and Newcastle antibody titre responses of the birds were performed using widal and haemagglutination inhibition (HI), respectively. The birds were divided into two broad groups tagged as A and B, which represented Salmonella and Newcastle vaccines, respectively. Each group had 3 sub-groups denoting the 3 strains of turkey used for the study. After vaccination, blood samples were collected from all the birds at 3 and 5 days for laboratory assessment of antibody titre response. The results showed that there was significant increase (p&lt;0.05) in the antibody titre response of all the turkey strains after vaccination. Results obtained on the time of exposure of the birds to vaccine revealed that higher antibody titre values were obtained from the black and white turkey strains at 3 days than at 5 days after administration of Newcastle vaccine, except in the lavender strain, which had higher titre value at 5 days after Newcastle vaccination. Following administration of salmonella vaccine, black and lavender strains had statistically higher antibody titre response (2.03 and 2.10 mean log<sub>e</sub> widal, respectively) than white strain (1.86 mean log<sub>e </sub>widal). Similarly, the black strain also had higher antibody titre value when Newcastle vaccine was administered (2.35 mean log<sub>e</sub> HI) followed by lavender (1.99 mean log<sub>e</sub> HI) and white strain (1.71 mean log<sub>e</sub> HI). Black strains showed more antibody titre response and by implication, stronger immunity to Salmonella and Newcastle vaccines. More importantly, the differential response of the 3 turkey strains to vaccine could give turkey breeders the choice of selection of turkey breeds for disease resistance breeding.</p> 2021-03-30T09:37:56+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physiological Behaviour and Yield Contribution of Oryza sativa Under Different Cultivation System in Boro Season 2021-04-11T17:27:11+00:00 Md. Shoriful Islam Md. Moinul Hoque Kamal Uddin Ahamed Parvin Akter Bithy Sarmin Akter Ranu <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The objectives of the research work were to evaluate the physiological behaviour and yield contributing attributes of rice under different system of cultivation in <em>boro </em>season.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Central research field of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka-1207 during November 2015 to May 2016.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In this research we used three System of cultivation [T<sub>1</sub>: Low land transplant (anaerobic) condition; T<sub>2</sub>: Raised upland (aerobic) condition, and T<sub>3</sub>: Raised transplant (aerobic) condition] and five rice Varieties [V<sub>1</sub>: BRRI hybrid dhan3; V<sub>2</sub>:Bolaka; V<sub>3</sub>: Moina; V<sub>4</sub>: Gold and V<sub>5</sub>:BRRI dhan 45], where different morpho-physiological data was taken for evaluation their performance. The significance of the difference among the treatment means were estimated by the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% level of probability [1].</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the different system of cultivation significant variation was observed on growth, yield and yield contributing parameters. All the studied hybrid varieties showed superiority in respect of physiological characters, yield and yield attributes in anaerobic condition over aerobic condition. BRRI hybrid dhan3 provided the highest grain yield (8.05 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) at low land transplant condition. BRRI hybrid dhan3 performed well due to yield attributes [amount of chlorophyll (2.47 mg g<sup>-1</sup>) in its flag leaves,leaf area index (4.25), shoot reserve translocation (34.97%), grain dry matter accumulated from current photosynthesis (85.87%) , higher filled grains per panicle and 1000 grain weight] than others varieties and the lowest (4.28 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was obtained from BRRIdhan45 at raised transplant condition.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The results showed that Low land transplant condition with BRRI hybrid 3 showed the best performance regarding growth, yield and yield contributing characters of <em>Boro</em> rice varieties than others.</p> 2021-04-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of NPK Fertilization Method on the Physiology and Fruit Products of Myristica fragrans in North Maluku, Indonesia 2021-04-11T17:27:10+00:00 Wawan Sulistiono Abubakar Ibrahim Bayu Suwitono Himawan Bayu Aji Abdul Wahab Muhammad Taufiq Ratule Made Jana Mejaya <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The objective of this study was to determine the optimal fertilizing method and NPK fertilizer dosage for plant physiology and nutmeg yield.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The experimental design was a completely randomized block design (CRBD) in a 4x3 factorial arrangement with three replicates. The first factor was four NPK fertilizer doses: 1, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5kg NPK (15:15:15)/tree/year. The second factor was the manner of fertilizer application: (1) fertilized in spot, (2) fertilized in-furrow trenches trunked and (3) fertilized in hole.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The research was conducted in Tobelo North Halmahera (1°44'45.3"-1°44'54.4" N, 127°59'54.4"-127°59'53.2" E), North Maluku, Indonesia from January 2019 to May 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The nutmeg trees used was 30 years old. The population of trees plants in the study area was 40 trees. Observation parameters on leaves are chlorophyll a, b and total, nitrate reductase activity (NRA), N, P, K, proline content, number of young and old fruits.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The fertilization treatment with the fertilizer application method into the crack/hole fertilizer with a dose of 2.5 kg NPK significantly produced high levels of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; total chlorophyll of leaves and old fruit. The number of old fruits is positively correlated with chlorophyll a content (0.615<sup>*</sup>), chlorophyll b (0.663<sup>*</sup>), total chlorophyll (0.634<sup>*</sup>) and number of young fruits (0.748 <sup>**</sup>). The application of fertilizer hole produces plants that recover quickly from drought stress, as evidenced by the highest proline content.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> NPK fertilization using the hole method and at doses of 2.0-2.5 kg/tree/year are recommended for improving plant physiology and yield.</p> 2021-04-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nutritional Responses of the Black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.), Larvae under Toxicity Effects of Five Wild Botanical Extracts from Sinai, Egypt 2021-04-11T17:27:08+00:00 Enas E. Nasr Samir S. Teleb Amira I. Abou-Saty <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To identify the chemical components of five wild Botanical oils (BOs) and their larvicidal influences on the anti-nutritional indices of the 4<sup>th</sup> instar larvae of <em>Agrotis ipsilon</em>.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> A comparative study with the randomized design, using five plant Extracts replicated five times.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> <em>Mentha longifolia</em>, <em>Artemisia judaica</em>, <em>Majorana hortensis</em>, <em>Origanum syriacum</em>, and <em>Achillea santolina</em> were collected from the Sinai desert, Egypt. Study procedures were done at the Laboratory of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt, between December 2018 and June 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> An analysis of the tested BOs components was done using a Shimadzu GC-9A gas chromatograph. Five sub-lethal concentrations of each plant were prepared (5 replicate/treatment) to evaluate medium lethality against <em>A. ipsilon</em> larvae (20 larvae/replicate). Untreated larvae were used distilled water only as a control. Ten larvae of each treatment were treated with only one LC<sub>50</sub> to estimate the effect of different tested BOs on anti-nutritional Activities.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The main component of the <em>M. longifolia</em> and <em>A. judaica</em> oil was Piperitone at 39.79 and 37.55%, respectively; whereas the <em>M. hortensis</em>, <em>O. syriacum</em>, and <em>A. santolina</em> oil was Terpinen-4-ol, Thymol, and Fragranyl acetate at 29.82, 31.21, and 25.67%, respectively. According to LC<sub>50</sub> of the tested BOs, the toxicity of <em>A. judaica</em>, <em>M. longifolia</em>, <em>O. syriacum</em>, respectively, were the most effective oils, while <em>M. hortensis</em> and <em>A. santolina</em> oils were the least susceptibilities. The more toxic oils reduced food consumption, causing a significant decrease in relative consumption rate (RCR), growth rate (RGR), and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI)/digested (ECD). The previous oils also showed a significant increase in metabolic cost (MC) and anti-feeding activities against <em>A. ipsilon</em> larvae compared to <em>M. hortensis</em> and <em>A. santolina</em>.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is suggested that <em>A. judaica</em> and <em>M. longifolia</em> extracts contain high Piperitone content and could be accepted as toxicants to control <em>A. ipsilon</em>.</p> 2021-04-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prediction by Soft Computing, Planning, and Strategy Building of Aquatic Catch: Chilika Lagoon, Odisha, India 2021-04-12T04:14:05+00:00 Siba Prasad Mishra Ananta Charan Ojha <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The Chilika lagoon in south Odisha, India was ecologically degraded from 1985 onwards by reduction of its aquatic (fish + prawn + shrimp) catches along with reduction in salinity, hydraulic regime, water exchange, aquatic weeds invasion, and sediment influx. The aquatic catch was 8669MT in year 1985-1986 gradually reduced to 1274MT during 1995-1996 from Odisha Fisheries Dept. records which resulted in poor economic condition of ≈0,2million fishermen and they migrated to adopt other livelihood. One direct tidal inlet dredged (Sipakuda) and Naraj barrage in the apex of South Mahanadi Delta were the major hydraulic interventions made to regain hydraulic regime. After the hydraulic interventions, the eco system restored, and the aquatic catch surged but it was insufficient to livelihood sustenance for the fishermen community of the Chilika,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; so&nbsp;&nbsp; that&nbsp; they are forced for alternate occupation and migration.</p> <p><strong>Methodologies:</strong> Fish catch data collected for 30 years and soft computing models linear regression, Multi Linear Perception (ANN), SMOorg (SVM) and the Random Forest algorithms (Weka Software) are used to predict the fish catch data of the lagoon for coming decade from 2020 to 2030. The effects of major hydraulic interventions are analyzed and the soft computing method of the fish and shrimp catch prediction of the Chilika has been attempted for the first time except some statistical approaches.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The Random Forest is found to be the preferred algorithm followed by the MLP model. The amount of catch remained around 12-13TMT if the variables and the present status of the lagoon is maintained. The combined effect of the Sipakuda Tidal inlet and the effective operation of the Naraj barrage have maintained the sustainable aqua catch. The present study shall be an immense help for the lake users and policy makers to augment aquatic catch, and alternate livelihood fishers community of the Chilika lagoon.</p> 2021-04-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##