Annual Research & Review in Biology 2021-09-23T02:13:27+00:00 Annual Research & Review in Biology Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of <strong>Annual Research &amp; Review in Biology (ARRB)</strong> <strong>(ISSN: 2347-565X)</strong> <strong>(Previous name:</strong> <strong>Annual Review &amp; Research in Biology, ISSN: 2231-4776</strong>) is to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/ARRB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) with broad areas of Aerobiology, &nbsp;Agriculture, Anatomy, Astrobiology, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Bioinformatics, Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology, Biomechanics, Biomedical research, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Building biology, Botany, Cell biology, Conservation Biology, Cryobiology, Developmental biology, Food biology, Ecology, Embryology, Entomology, Environmental Biology, Epidemiology, Ethology, Evolutionary Biology, Genetics, Herpetology, Histology, Ichthyology, Integrative biology, Limnology,&nbsp; Mammalogy, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Mycology, Neurobiology, Oceanography, Oncology, Ornithology, Population biology, Population ecology, Population genetics, Paleontology, Pathobiology or pathology, Parasitology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Psychobiology, Sociobiology, Structural biology, Virology and&nbsp; Zoology. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Yellow Sap Contamination on Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) Fruit in Relation to Soil Calcium Contents and Plant Tissue 2021-09-06T06:04:06+00:00 . Martias Titin Purnama . Riska . Affandi Sri Yuliati Nini Marta Tri Budiyanti Deni Emilda Dewi Fatria . Hendri I. G. K. D. Arsana Ratna W. Arief Robet Asnawi Made J. Mejaya <p>Yellow sap contamination (YSC) is one of the mangosteen quality constrain in Indonesia. Calcium is the prominent nutrient that influence the incidence of yellow sap contamination. A research with objective to observe the relationship between incidence YSC and Ca availability in soil as well as plant tissue was done in ten locations in West Sumatra, Lampung and West Java provinces. Purposive random sampling method was used to determine the site locations. The plant and soil samples were collected from 10 sites and ten tree per sites. Correlation analysis was used to measure the relationship between incidence YSC and Ca content in fruit endocarp, mesocarp, peel, soil and leaf. The result showed that there was a variation of incidence YSC in site location with range of 8.7%−54.04%; 4.0−51.6%; and 17.7−78.6% for percentage of YSC in fruit flesh, segmentation and peel, respectively. Ca content in soil, endocarp, mesocarp and leaf were given significantly negative correlation toward incidence YSC in fruit flesh and segmentation. Ca content in leaf part correlates significantly to Ca availability in soil, endocarp and mesocarp. Ca content in leaf in the range of 1.40- 1.70% indicates YSC less than 10%.</p> 2021-09-01T07:57:31+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Determining the Optimum Conditions for Extracting Carotenoids from Syrian Apricot Fruits 2021-09-07T09:01:06+00:00 Wahbi Kalook Adib Faleh Amir Al-Haj Sakur Wassim Abdelwahed <p>The aim of this research is to extract carotenoids from apricot fruits using a food solvent (ethanol) and a non-food solvent (propanol). In addition, it aims to study the effect of different extraction conditions, i.e., the extraction temperature (20-40-60)°C and the extraction times (4-8-12) hours, on the carotenoids yield in order to improve and develop extraction methods. The extracted carotenoids were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the studied carotenoids are α-carotene and β-carotene. It was found that β-carotene constitutes about 80% of the total carotenoids in apricots. The results indicated that the extraction yield using ethanol was low compared to the extraction yield using propanol. Propanol is the most suitable solvent for carotenoids extraction in comparison with ethanol. The temperature also had a significant effect on the extraction yield; at 20°C the extraction yield was very low, and 60°C was the optimum temperature for the extraction of carotene. The extraction yield significantly increased with time in the first hours of extraction, and there was no significant effect from increasing the extraction time for a period of 6-8 hours. Moreover, the pretreatment of fruits by freezing accelerated the extraction process and increased the extraction yield. The optimum conditions for extracting carotenoids were determined in the conditions of food extraction; the optimum conditions for extracting carotenoids are: extraction at 60°C for three hours with pretreatment by freezing as the extraction rate reached up to 6.36 mg/100 g using ethanol as a food solvent.</p> 2021-09-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A New Methodology for Designing a Skull Implant 2021-09-07T10:09:14+00:00 Nassim Markiz Eszter Horváth Péter Ficzere <p>Cranioplasty is a surgery used to repair a bone defect in the skull caused by an injury. It involves lifting the scalp and restoring the contour of the skull with an implant usually manufactured by additive manufacturing. The cranial implant is a sensitive topic; thus, it must be manufactured to the highest standards. Medical implants are growing significantly due to industrial digitalization and the rapid development of industrial software. With the help of computed Tomography (CT) equipment, a spatial, rotating model of the patient's current state can be obtained quickly, even in minutes where the replacement part of the deficiency can be perfectly designed. Although this requires considerable routine, computational capacity, and time, but taking advantage of the latest software presented in our manuscript, the development time of the implant can be up to 50 times shorter with significant improvements in suitability and adaptability. Subsequently, we can produce more accurate implants with more accessible and faster manufacturing with our developed method. The development steps and methods of designing an implant are described in our article.</p> 2021-09-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Neem Leaves (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) on the Control of Costalimaita ferruginea (Fabricius, 1801) 2021-09-07T10:43:06+00:00 Roldão Carlos Andrade Lima Mauricélia Ferreira Almeida Adriana de Sousa Freitas Andressa Layane Ferreira Linhares Bianca Pinheiro da Costa Neiva Brunna Tavares da Silva Brito Sousa Jeferson Pereira da Silva Kaio Lucena Vidal Felipe Ferreira da Silva Gabriel Alves Santos Raylson Marcelo Fernandes de Lima <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Evaluate the insecticidal effect of the aqueous extract of neem leaves on the control of</p> <p><em>Costalimaita ferruginea </em>in eucalyptus.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Entomology Laboratory of the Center for Agricultural Sciences (CCA) of the State University of the Tocantina Region of Maranhão (UEMASUL) between November 2016 and July 2017.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Neem aqueous extract solutions were tested at concentrations of 40, 60 and 80%, and the control group treated with mineral water. Leaves of eucalyptus seedlings were immersed in each concentration and individualized in Petri dishes together with the insects. The design was completely randomized with four treatments and ten repetitions, each repetition consisting of a Petri dish with an insect and a eucalyptus leaf. The evaluations were carried out daily, analyzing the mortality of adults, and the leaves were replaced by others submitted to the same treatment and procedure described above.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In the evaluations of 12, 60, 72 and 84 hours there was no significant difference. 36 hours after the implementation of the experiment, the 60% neem concentration resulted in 100% mortality of specimens.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The 60% neem concentration is the most efficient due to its rapid effect on <em>C. ferruginea </em>mortality and economy of raw material for production.</p> 2021-09-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Farmers’ Preference of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Varieties Introduced to Improve Plant Productivity in North Sumatra Province, Indonesia 2021-09-14T02:47:28+00:00 Yudi Widodo Ruly Krisdiana Nila Prasetiaswati Kartika Noerwijati Arief Harsono Didik Sucahyono Tinuk S. Wahyuni Titik Sundari Made J. Mejaya . Martias I. G. K. D. Arsana <p>A varietal testing had been undertaken in Pematangsiantar regency, North Sumatra province, Indonesia in 2015-2016. The objective of the study was to determine the preference of cassava growers to the introduced varieties compared to the existing cassava varieties. Twelve cassava varities (UB1/2, UB1472, Adira1, Malang4, Cecekijo, Farsem, Gajah, Ketan Jabung, Caspro, Malaysia, Adira4, and Cikaret) were tested using a Randomized Block Design with four replications. The data were taken on aboveground characters and underground characters such as root number, root diameter, root length, root weight, and starch content based on factory criteria (A = 22%, B = 18%, C = 14% and D = 10% starch content). Results of the study indicated that Malang-4 had the highest root yield (49,830 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) followed by Farsem variety (41,690 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), and Malaysia Local variety (41,030 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). The bitter taste of Malang 4 was an appropriate character to be developed as starch processing of cassava. Starch content is very important indigenous criteria for farmers and traders to know fairly about pricing in relation with starch content. The higher starch content coincided with higher root yield of Malang-4 is very interesting and will benefit the factory. There was no difference in factory price of cassava from farmers, although the starch content indicated different levels (B =18%, C=14% or D =10%). The Malang-4 could be introduced to the local goverment for being grown in a larger areas in the North Sumatera province.</p> 2021-09-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review on Toxicity of Pesticides in Catfishes: Reproductive, Haematological and Biochemical Aspects 2021-09-18T02:13:25+00:00 P. Suchiang <p>This review article focuses on the effect of pesticides on reproductive functions, haematological and biochemical changes in catfishes. Pesticides are chemical substances that are released into the environment to control the populations of harmful pests. Pesticide exposure leads to toxicity in aquatic organisms, including fishes which are particularly sensitive to pesticides. The acute and sublethal concentrations of pesticides in the aquatic environment result in different lethal alterations, including changes in reproductive functions, histology, haematology, proteins, glucose, lipids, enzymes, etc. Pesticides act as endocrine disruptor compounds and have the potential to impair reproductive function in catfishes. Alterations in haematological and biochemical parameters are used as efficient biomarkers in assessing the toxicity of pesticides in fishes.</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Overview and Checklist of Parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae and Figitidae) of Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) in the Brazilian Amazon 2021-09-23T02:13:27+00:00 Maria do Socorro Miranda de Sousa Jhulie Emille Veloso dos Santos Dori Edson Nava Roberto Antonio Zucchi Ricardo Adaime <p>&nbsp;Fruit-bearing plants in the Brazilian Amazon are mainly attacked by species of <em>Anastrepha</em>, of which about half are endemic to the region. However, tritrophic relations (fly/plant/parasitoid) have only been established for some 25% of the species of <em>Anastrepha</em> in the region. At present, 11 species of hymenopterous parasitoids (Braconidae and Figitidae) have been recorded in the Brazilian Amazon. Parasitoids in general, especially those of the family Braconidae, stand out as the most effective natural enemies of fruit flies of the genus <em>Anastrepha</em>. <em>Doryctobracon areolatus</em> is the most abundant parasitoid and it is associated with the largest number of <em>Anastrepha</em> species in the region. Some fruiting species, for example <em>Bellucia grossularioides</em> (L.) Triana and <em>Geissospermum argenteum</em> Woodson, have been studied aiming at biological control of fruit flies, because they act as reservoirs or multipliers of fruit fly parasitoids. Although research has advanced significantly in the past 20 years, there is a shortage of studies in nearly all states in the region, due to the huge area of the Brazilian Amazon.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##