Annual Research & Review in Biology https://www.journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB <p>The aim of <strong>Annual Research &amp; Review in Biology (ARRB) (ISSN: 2347-565X) (Previous name: Annual Review &amp; Research in Biology, ISSN: 2231-4776)</strong> is to publish high quality papers (<a href="https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) with broad areas of Aerobiology, Agriculture, Anatomy, Astrobiology, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Bioinformatics, Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology, Biomechanics, Biomedical research, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Building biology, Botany, Cell biology, Conservation Biology, Cryobiology, Developmental biology, Food biology, Ecology, Embryology, Entomology, Environmental Biology, Epidemiology, Ethology, Evolutionary Biology, Genetics, Herpetology, Histology, Ichthyology, Integrative biology, Limnology, Mammalogy, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Mycology, Neurobiology, Oceanography, Oncology, Ornithology, Population biology, Population ecology, Population genetics, Paleontology, Pathobiology or pathology, Parasitology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Psychobiology, Sociobiology, Structural biology, Virology and Zoology. </p> <p><strong>NAAS Score: 4.90 (2024)</strong></p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Annual Research & Review in Biology 2347-565X Identification of the Downy Mildew Resistant Sources in Sunflower https://www.journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2078 <p>Four different evaluation trials were conducted in the field between 2017 and 2020, with varied numbers of genotypes, to evaluate the performance of sunflower genotypes for agromorphological features and resistance to Sunflower Downy Mildew (SDM) at Latur, Maharashtra, India. A validation experiment was carried out in 2021–2022, using artificial screening in National Diseased Plot Screening Facility at Latur, to screen a small number of accessions that had previously shown resistance to SDM during 2017-2020. The released variety "Morden," also susceptible check showed at least 60% of the SDM incidence for four years. This suggests that <em>Plasmopara halstedii</em> spores could be present in the experimental soils, which increases the variety's susceptibility to SDM disease. Out of the tree genotypes that were reported to be resistant in field screening <em>viz</em>., GMU-481 (GP1 909 genotype), Ec-198078, and RHA 1-1 (selection) only two GMU-481 (GP1 909) and Ec-198078 were verified to be resistant under artificial screening in 2021–2022 and can be designated as sources of resistance for SDM disease. These two genotypes with resistance to SDM could be used in future breeding attempts and as potential gene donors for SDM.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> M. Y. Dudhe S. V. Waghmare R. P. Ramteke M. V. Jadhav K. Sakthivel M. V. Dhuppe S. P. Pole M. K. Ghodke A. M. Misal A. B. Rajguru Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 39 5 22 26 10.9734/arrb/2024/v39i52078 Cesarean Sectional as a Treatment of Dystocia Caused by Uterine Torsion in Mehsana Buffalo https://www.journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2076 <p>A case of dystocia due to post-cervical right side uterine torsion with the history of colic and straining since (days) in a pluriparous Mehsana buffalo was presented at the clinics of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Veterinary College, Sardarkrushinagar, Dantiwada, Gujarat, India. Maternal dystocia due to of uterine torsion was diagnosed by history, a clinical sign, per rectal and per vaginal examinations. At first we used modified Schaffer’s method for management of uterine torsion in buffalo. After the three rolls torsion was detorted successfully, but due to insufficient dilated cervix the fetus could not be delivered. Further, the buffalo was treated therapeutically using intravenous administration of 10ml-Dexamethasone<sup>®</sup>, 75IU-Oxytocin<sup>®</sup>, 1litre-Normal saline, 1litre-Ringer lactate, 100ml-Calcium borogluconate and 10ml-Valethamate bromide (Epidosin<sup>®</sup>) was given intramuscularly for treating incomplete cervical dilation(ICD). However, the buffalo could not responded to treatment, therefore finally the caesarean section was performed and a dead male fetus was delivered. Buffalo was post-medicated with various fluids, analgesic, antibiotic and antihistamine parentally apart from intra-uterine pessaries which resulted to recovery of affected Mehsana buffalo within some days.</p> Sachin Kalaswa Ravindra Jadav Janak Panchal Vipul Solanki Keshav H. C. Nakhashi B. N. Suthar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 39 5 1 7 10.9734/arrb/2024/v39i52076 Effect of Young and Old Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract on Haematological, Renal and Liver Indices in Rattus novergicus https://www.journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2077 <p><strong>Aim</strong>: The use of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> leaves has gained worldwide acceptance in use by animals and humans. The study aimed to determine the effects of ethanolic leaf extract of young and old<em> Moringa</em> <em>oleifera</em> on haematological, renal, and liver indices in Wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Design:</strong> A completely randomized design was used for the study.</p> <p><strong>Place and duration of study: </strong>The study was carried out in the Animal Science Department of Akenten Appiah-Menka University of Skills Training and Entrepreneurial Development and lasted for six weeks.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> A total of twenty male Wistar rats of age eight weeks old were used for the study. The Wistar rats were kept in aluminum cages under a 12-hours light and 12-hours dark cycle. The rats were divided into four treatments; Treatment (T1) received 1 mL/bw/day of normal saline, Treatments 2, 3, and 4 received 100 mg/kg/bw of iron (III) hydroxide polymaltose, 100 mg/kg/bw of young <em>Moring</em>a <em>oleifera</em> extract (YMoE) and 100mg/kg/bw of old <em>Moringa oleifera </em>extract (OMoE) as treatments respectively for six weeks. Phytochemical screening of young and old <em>Moringa oleifera</em> was done separately using standard extraction procedures.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of triterpenoid, glycosides, flavonoid, and saponins in both young and old <em>Moringa oleifera</em> leaves, however, alkaloids and tannins were found only in young leaves of <em>Moringa oleifera</em>. Both extract (YMoE and OMoE) significantly (P&lt;0.05) influenced rat’s feed intake and body weight. An insignificant (P&gt;0.05) effect of the treatment on haematological parameters was observed. However, there was a significant (P&lt;0.05) effect of YMoE and OMoE treatments on haemoglobin which mirrored the effect of iron (III) hydroxide polymaltose. The study found no significant effect (P&gt;0.05) of YMoE and OMoE treatments on liver enzymes, and Blood urea nitrogen. Creatines levels showed elevation in the group that received iron (III) hydroxide polymaltose, while those administered with Moringa extract had similar effect to the normal saline treatment. Histopathological examinations showed normal kidney and liver architecture in normal saline and<em> Moringa oleifera</em> treatments. Mild renal epithelium degeneration was observed in the iron (III) hydroxide poly-maltose treatment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The findings from this study suggest that both young and old <em>Moringa oleifera</em> leaves may effectively manage anaemia without causing kidney or liver damage.</p> Joshua Dwomoh Duodu Addison Fritz R. K. Bonsu Papa Kofi Amissah-Reynolds Emmanuel Effah-Yeboah Samuel A. Ofori Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-19 2024-04-19 39 5 8 21 10.9734/arrb/2024/v39i52077 Morphological and Biochemical Characterization of Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum, Causal Agent of Bacterial Wilt in Tomatoes in Cameroon and Screening of Virulent Strains https://www.journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2079 <p><em>Ralstonia solanacearum</em> is a major constraint in tomato production. The aim of this work was to identify the different biovars and races of R. solanacearum which infect tomato plants in Cameroon and determine the most virulent in a gnotobiotic environment. Thirty (30) samples were collected in the field of 03 different agro-ecological zones considered as major tomato production area in Cameroon. The bacteria were isolated on modified Kelman solid medium, and identified based on morphological and biochemical characterization. The pathogenicity test was performed in a gnotobiotic environment by root inoculation. Twenty-nine (29) isolates showed colonies characteristic of virulent strains. Water, motility, catalase, KOH, Kovac oxidase, glucose reduction, and sucrose tests were positive. However, gram staining, spore production, arginine test and sulfate reduction were negative. The biovar tests carried out revealed the presence16.66% biovar 2 (bv 2) and 76.66% biovar 3(bv 3). The tobacco hypersensitivity tests carried out revealed the presence of two (02) races: race 1 and race 3 (majority). A predominance of race3 biovar 3 was observed in Cameroon. Results from pathogenicity test revealed that two (02) strains, FM6 (race 3 bv2) and BFo (race 3 bv 3) were high virulent, causing up to 100% loss of seedlings on the sixth day post-inoculation.</p> Cylvain Patrick Mountseng Hermine Mahot Gertrude Membang Serges Bertrand Mboussi Didier Begoude Zachée Ambang Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 39 5 27 42 10.9734/arrb/2024/v39i52079 Introducing in Côte D’ivoire a Simple Technique Contributing to the Post-Harvest Management of Mangoes (Mangifera indica L. 1753) Perishability and Browning by Targeting Polyphenol Oxidases (PPOs) https://www.journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2080 <p>Côte d'Ivoire is the leading exporter of <em>Palmer</em> and <em>Keitt </em>mangoes in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the importance of the foreign exchange generated, these tropical fruits suffer enormous post-harvest losses due to their high perishability, mainly caused by enzymatic browning. In fact, the appearance of brown discolouration due to alterations, whether caused by mechanical, technological or natural treatment, is the cause of huge economic losses. To address this thorny problem and thereby improve export volumes, three technological treatments including steam bleaching, oven drying and osmotic dehydration were carried out on mango edible parts to inhibit polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), the key enzymes that catalyse enzymatic browning. The results showed that only oven drying at 60°C and steam bleaching at 60°C and 100°C had a significant effect on inactivating PPOs activity after only a few minutes. Osmotic dehydration maintained high levels of enzyme activity even after 24 hours of treatment. In conclusion, steam bleaching at 60°C for 7 minutes was found to be the best post-harvest management technique for Palmer and Keitt mangoes, as it contributed to both the preservation of marketable quality and the stability of organoleptic properties of the mango.</p> Ehuié Micaël Bédikou Silver Kouassi Kossonou Inès Christelle Assemian Fafadzi Charlotte Ehon Ahou-Yah Gisèle Koua Lessoy Thierry Zoué Lamine Sébastien Niamké Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 39 5 43 53 10.9734/arrb/2024/v39i52080 Assessing the Efficacy and Biological Benefits of Withanolide-rich Withania somnifera Root Extract https://www.journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2081 <p>The medicinal plant <em>Withania somnifera</em>, usually referred to as Ashwagandha, is a member of the Solanaceae family. The presence of Withanolides in the roots is responsible for a number of pharmacological effects in Ashwagandha. Withanolides have been demonstrated to be an effective neuronal, immune, anti-stress, and anti-cancer agent. However, Withanolides demonstrated limited permeability, lowering the bioavailability and efficacy of active compounds. The goal of the study was to ascertain the biological efficacy of Ashwagandha Composition, a blend of <em>W. somnifera</em> milk extract and water extract (1:1) with a high concentration of Withanolides (3-5%), at lower dosages with improved bioabsorption compared to pure Ashwagandha Hydro ethanolic extracts fortified with 2.5% withanolides. The <em>W. somnifera</em> Composition was assessed for its bioabsorption and bioefficacy by exploring its intestinal absorption capacity, Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition (82%), antioxidant potential (91%), glutathione reduction potential (15.6%), anti-inflammatory activity (87.2%), and anti-cancer activity. Additionally, Ashwagandha Composition was also evaluated for its safety profile. We found <em>W. somnifera</em> Composition (1:1) is more bioavailable and showed higher biological activity than the Ashwagandha Hydro ethanolic extract fortified with 2.5% withanolides (Ashwagandha extract). Hence, the <em>W. somnifera</em> a Composition can be used as a therapeutic medication once its safety concerns are addressed by <em>in vivo</em> trials.</p> Devaraj Reddy KN Srilakshmi Aluri Prathvi Shetty Shreya Udaya Shankara Prasad Sudhanva MS Shobith Rangappa Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 39 5 54 64 10.9734/arrb/2024/v39i52081 Toxicity of Two Therapeutants Hydrogen Peroxide and Formalin in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) https://www.journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2082 <p>The FDA has granted approval for the use of chemicals hydrogen peroxide and formalin in aquaculture. The toxicity of these two compounds was evaluated in the current study for freshwater Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) weighing 75 ± 2.5g. For 96 hours, ten fish each were subjected in triplicate to concentrations of hydrogen peroxide at 0 ppm, 150 ppm, 250 ppm, 350 ppm, 450 ppm, and 600 ppm. Similarly, for 96 hours, 10 fish each were subjected in triplicate to the following concentrations of formalin: 0 ppm, 50 ppm, 100 ppm, 150 ppm, 200 ppm, 250 ppm, 300 ppm, 350 ppm, 400 ppm, and 450 ppm. Every day, the mortality rate was noted. Each chemical's LD50 was determined using the non-linear regression approach. Hematological parameters, such as white blood cells, red blood cell, hemoglobin, and thrombocyte number as well as serum parameters, such as ALT, AST, creatinine, and BUN, and enzymes that inhibit free radicals, such as SOD, CAT, and GSH, were determined following the collection of blood and liver tissue. Following the slaughter fish. The liver, muscle, gills, and heart were collected for histopathology. The LC50 values for formalin and hydrogen peroxide were found to be 231.2 µg/ml and 314.6 µg/ml, respectively. Sublethal concentrations of hydrogen peroxide significantly increased hematological parameters such as total WBC, RBC, hemoglobin, and thrombocyte count, and serum parameters such as ALT, AST, creatinine, and BUN, while antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, and GSH significantly decreased. Fish exposed to formalin had significantly higher levels of ALT, AST, creatinine, BUN, and significantly lower levels of antioxidant enzymes. Histology of the muscles of fish that were exposed to sublethal concentrations of two chemicals showed hyperplasia, lamellar fusion of the gills, infiltration of hemocytes and muscular atypia in the heart, and separation of muscle fiber bundles in the liver.</p> Avanish Dixit Gijo Ittoop Devika Pillai Rehna A Leena Chandrasekhar Suresh N Nair Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 39 5 65 77 10.9734/arrb/2024/v39i52082