Annual Research & Review in Biology <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of <strong>Annual Research &amp; Review in Biology (ARRB)</strong> <strong>(ISSN: 2347-565X)</strong> <strong>(Previous name:</strong> <strong>Annual Review &amp; Research in Biology, ISSN: 2231-4776</strong>) is to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/ARRB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) with broad areas of Aerobiology, &nbsp;Agriculture, Anatomy, Astrobiology, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Bioinformatics, Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology, Biomechanics, Biomedical research, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Building biology, Botany, Cell biology, Conservation Biology, Cryobiology, Developmental biology, Food biology, Ecology, Embryology, Entomology, Environmental Biology, Epidemiology, Ethology, Evolutionary Biology, Genetics, Herpetology, Histology, Ichthyology, Integrative biology, Limnology,&nbsp; Mammalogy, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Mycology, Neurobiology, Oceanography, Oncology, Ornithology, Population biology, Population ecology, Population genetics, Paleontology, Pathobiology or pathology, Parasitology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Psychobiology, Sociobiology, Structural biology, Virology and&nbsp; Zoology. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Annual Research & Review in Biology 2347-565X Role of Surfactant for the Treatment of Alveolar Cells against Coronavirus (Covid-19) <p>Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the newly discovered coronavirus. Coronavirus affects human lung tissues. Covid-19 should be infection of the lungs, the virus infects alveolar cells resulting in reduced production of pulmonary surfactant. Pulmonary surfactant is a complex of lipids and proteins that line the alveolar epithelial surface and stabilize it during respiration. The surfactant helps to reduce the surface tension on alveoli. The surface-active components of the alveoli are a complex mixture of specific lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, which is produced in the lungs by type II alveolar epithelial cells. As a result, the lungs continue to collapse, reducing its own volume, but the collapse is prevented by the muscles of inspiration, which instead increase its volume. Covid-19 allows the surfactant to maintain the correct amount of surfactant during the acute phase of infection during lung infection and allows time to resume and allow individual surfactant production for type II cells. Surfactant degradation or inactivation may contribute to increased susceptibility to pneumonia and increased susceptibility to infection. Surfactant deficiency in patients with acute respiratory syndrome in adults and surfactant administration may be a useful therapy against Covid-19.</p> Sony Ahmed Md. Shamim Akter Kallol Roy Md. Shafiul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 34 39 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i630233 Interleukin 3 as an Erythropoietic Marker in Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Positive Patients in South East Nigeria <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To evaluate the interleukin 3 levels in some Hepatitis B virus and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive subjects.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Cross sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Haematology Department, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, Nigeria, between June and September, 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 86 subjects were recruited for this study; 40 were positive for the human immunodeficiency virus, 30 were Hepatitis B positive and 16 healthy subjects that served as controls. The controls had tested negative to Hepatitis B Virus, Human immunodeficiency Virus and hepatitis C virus infections. Whole blood samples were collected from the Human immunodeficiency Virus positive and control samples. Haemoglobin concentration was analysed using the Orphěe Mythic 22 automated analyzer. Serum samples collected from all 86 subjects were used to assay Interleukin 3 using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay based Finetest human interleukin 3 kit.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A highly significant decrease in interleukin 3 levels was observed in Hepatitis B Virus and Human immunodeficiency virus positive subjects when compared with the apparently healthy control subjects, (P = 0.000 &lt; 0.05). Average hemoglobin levels were also lower in the Human immunodeficiency virus subjects compared with the controls.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> A reduction of the interleukin 3 may be part of the synergistic factors responsible for the anaemia usually seen in the viral infections.</p> Chinenye E. Okenwa Ijeoma C. Uzoma Anulika O. Onyemelukwe Ogechukwu C. Dozie- Nwakile Hilary Emuebie Victor C. Edeh S. A. Ufelle ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1 8 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i630231 Response of Maize (Zea mays L.) to Deficit Irrigation Combined with Reduced Nitrogen Rate is Genotype Dependent <p>Deficit irrigation and low nitrogen (N) fertilization rate cause negative effects on maize grain productivity; such effects differ from genotype to genotype. The main objectives of the present investigation were to: (i) identify the drought and low N tolerant genotypes, (ii) estimate the superiority of tolerant to sensitive genotypes and (iii) assess the differential response of maize genotypes to elevated levels of nitrogen. Maize genotypes were evaluated in 2016 and 2017 seasons under three N rates: high; 285.6, medium; 166.6 and low; 47.6 kg N/ha and two irrigation regimes: well-watered (WW) and water stressed (WS) at flowering. A split-split-plot design with three replications was used. Main plots were allotted to irrigation regimes, sub-plots to N rates and sub-sub-plots to genotypes. The tolerant (T) and sensitive (S) genotypes were identified under each stress. Grain yield/plant (GYPP) of T genotypes was significantly (P≤ 0.01) superior to as compared to S genotypes by 109.5%, 39.6% and 141.9% under Low-N, drought, and drought combined with low-N, respectively. Superiority of T over S genotypes in GYPP was associated with significant (P≤ 0.01) superiority in ears/plant (11.5, 13.15 and 11.99%), 100-kernel weight (38.65, 30.46 and 30.99%), kernels/row (22.81, 11.28 and 20.07%), Nitrogen use efficiency (109.49, 39.62 and 141.89%) and shortening in anthesis-silking interval (-44.56, -29.58 and -29.08%), under the three environments, respectively. A significant linear response on elevated levels of nitrogen was shown by 13 genotypes, but a quadratic response was shown by six genotypes. The present study suggested that further investigation should be conducted to identify the optimum N fertilization rate for each newly developed variety of maize.</p> A. M. M. Al-Naggar M. M. Shafik R. Y. M. Musa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 9 33 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i630232 Morphological Variability and Taxonomic Relationship of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Accessions Based on Qualitative Characters <p><em>Sorghum bicolor</em> (L.) Moench is a member of Poaceae family with three agronomic types corresponds to their specific uses namely grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, and forage sorghum. Although sorghum in Indonesia is considered as under-utilized crop, but it has the potential as an alternative resource for staple food in diversification program to support food security. The potential of sorghum as alternative staple food is due to its high nutritional value, and the ability to grow well in marginal lands with maintaining good productivity. The objectives of this study were to assess the extent of morphological variability and to resolve taxonomic relationship of sorghum accessions from Java Island based on morphological characters. Twenty nine sorghum samples were collected from three provinces in Java, namely Central Java, Special Province of Yogyakarta, and East Java. Morphological data observed refers to Descriptors for Sorghum, generating 19 qualitative characters used in cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Cluster analysis resulted in the grouping of 29 accessions into three groups corresponding to the racial classification of sorghum. Results of principal component analysis showed that the main distinguishing characters between groups were inflorescence compactness and shape, glume coverage, presence or absence of awn, presence or absence of grain sub-coat, grain shape, and grain color. Analysis of correlation showed that there were very strong relationship between glume coverage and the presence of awn, and between the presence of grain sub-coat and grain color. Results of this study revealed that sorghum accessions cultivated on Java Island consisted of four races namely Bicolor, Guinea, Caudatum, and Kafir.</p> Ika Nugraheni Ari Martiwi Laurentius Hartanto Nugroho Budi Setiadi Daryono Ratna Susandarini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 40 52 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i630234 Assessment of Hydraulic Conductivity of Some Nigerian Hardwood Timbers to Four Timber Treatment Chemicals through Quantitative Anatomical Studies <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Hydraulic conductivity following the Hagen-Poiseuille Law is a quantitative approach to determine the treatability of wood by chemicals. The hydraulic conductivities of the ten selected Nigerian hardwood timber species to four wood treatment chemicals were estimated, using Hagen-Peiseuille equation.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Ten timber species of marketable size and age were sourced from the forestry Departments of Enugu, Anambra and Abia States of Nigeria. Maceration were carried out following standard procedures. The viscosities in centipoises (cp) of the four wood treatment chemicals were measured in a viscometer test, while the hydraulic conductivities were calculated using the Hagen-Peiseuille equation.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results obtained show that the different woods responded differently to the chemicals. Treatment with Folithion 200 showed higher conductivity in <em>Triplochiton scleroxylon </em>(9.01 mm<sup>-3</sup>S<sup>-1</sup>× 10<sup>-5</sup>), followed by <em>Mansonia altissima, Milicia excelsa </em>and<em> Terminalia superb</em>. The order of conductivity to treatment with Actellic 25EO was <em>Terminalia superba &gt; Mansonia altissima &gt; Gmelina arborea, &gt; Khaya ivorensis</em>.<em> Ceiba pentandra</em> gave the highest conductivity of 8.58 mm<sup>-3</sup>S<sup>-1</sup>× 10<sup>-5</sup>, followed by <em>Afzelia africana</em> and <em>Canarium schwenfurthii</em> to the chemical Termitox. While <em>Triplochiton scleroxylon </em>gave the highest conductivity of 6.52 mm<sup>-3</sup>S<sup>-1</sup>×10<sup>-5</sup>, followed by <em>Milicia excels</em> and <em>Terminalia superba</em> to the chemical Solignum.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Folithion 200 would be effective on <em>Milicia excels</em>, <em>Mansonia altissima</em> and <em>Gmelina arborea</em>, Actellic 25 EO would be effective on <em>Khaya ivorensis</em>, <em>Terminalia superb </em>and <em>Antiaris toxicaria</em> while Termitox would be effective on<em> Ceiba pentandra</em>, <em>Afzelia Africana</em> and <em>Canarium schweinfurthii.</em></p> G. C. Ajuziogu R. C. Njokuocha N. M. Eze I. E. Ngele G. N. Ogbuagu E. O. Ojua ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-06 2020-07-06 53 59 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i630235 Comparative Analysis of Differences and Evolution of Hemorrhoidectomy Techniques <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To review from the literature, in a narrative way, techniques used for hemorrhoidectomy as well as benefits and criticisms about the procedures.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> For this purpose, a descriptive literary review was carried out for the construction of the work. In view of what is found, it is possible to assess this according to an epidemiological study conducted in the United States.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Hemorrhoid disease is a very common condition, occurring in 4.4% of adults, with a maximum prevalence between 45 and 65 years. The etiology of hemorrhoids is still unknown. Hemorrhoidectomy is believed to be the best treatment option for symptomatic hemorrhoid disease grade III and IV. The techniques used present advantages and disadvantages for the patient, since it will depend on the surgeon to choose the best approach and surgical procedure.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It is observed that more risk and benefit assessments are needed than the technique used in hemorrhoidectomy, based on randomized studies with a significant number of patients included in the study.</p> Nayara Lobo Coelho Rodolpho Cesar Oliveira Mellem Kairala Bruna Lemos Silva Afrânio Faria Lemos Danilo Rocha Chavez Zambrana Caio Cesar Faciroli Contin Silva Ana Carolina Arantes Vergílio Pereira Carvalho Silvio de Almeida- Júnior Bruna Lima Daher ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-07 2020-07-07 60 67 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i630236 Characteristics of the New Coronavirus Named SARS-CoV-2 Responsible for an Infection Called Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) <p>The new coronavirus called Covid-19, previously known as 2019-nCOV that has been reported in China, is rapidly spreading around the world at breakneck speed. Covid-19, a virus that was unknown to us before the outbreak in Wuhan (China) in December 2019, remains a major public health problem today. However, a new coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 has been identified as responsible for this disease. Human-to-human transmission is no longer a matter of debate. In general, 2019-nCOV is an infectious, acute resolved disease, but it can also be very fatal especially with certain comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, cerebral infarction or even chronic bronchitis. The main symptoms of Covid-19 are fever, cough, shortness of breath, chest tightness / pain, respectively. Until now, the source of the virus and the pathogenesis of this disease remain unknown. Considering the speed of propagation, the mortality rate in the world and its economic consequences, it is urgent to find drugs for the treatment even a vaccine in order to cut short the Covid-19. In this article, we will try to detail all the information relating to this virus.</p> Modou Mamoune Mbaye Bouchra El Khalfi Said El Hafiane Abdelaziz Soukri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-08 2020-07-08 68 77 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i630237