Annual Research & Review in Biology <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of <strong>Annual Research &amp; Review in Biology (ARRB)</strong> <strong>(ISSN: 2347-565X)</strong> <strong>(Previous name:</strong> <strong>Annual Review &amp; Research in Biology, ISSN: 2231-4776</strong>) is to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/ARRB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) with broad areas of Aerobiology, &nbsp;Agriculture, Anatomy, Astrobiology, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Bioinformatics, Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology, Biomechanics, Biomedical research, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Building biology, Botany, Cell biology, Conservation Biology, Cryobiology, Developmental biology, Food biology, Ecology, Embryology, Entomology, Environmental Biology, Epidemiology, Ethology, Evolutionary Biology, Genetics, Herpetology, Histology, Ichthyology, Integrative biology, Limnology,&nbsp; Mammalogy, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Mycology, Neurobiology, Oceanography, Oncology, Ornithology, Population biology, Population ecology, Population genetics, Paleontology, Pathobiology or pathology, Parasitology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Psychobiology, Sociobiology, Structural biology, Virology and&nbsp; Zoology. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Annual Research & Review in Biology) (Annual Research & Review in Biology) Wed, 05 Aug 2020 11:25:29 +0000 OJS 60 Reproductive Biology of Marine Catfish, Arius latiscutatus (Günther, 1864) and Arius gigas (Boulenger, 1911) from the Bays of Guinea <p><strong>Background and Objectives:</strong> Marine catfish are abundant in the bays of Tabounsou and Sangareah in Republic of Guinea, but the knowledge on their biology is still scanty. The reproductive biology of&nbsp;<em>Arius latiscutatus </em>Günther, 1864 and&nbsp;<em>A. gigas </em>Boulenger, 1911 was studied through monthly sampling, from January to December 2016.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Fish were caught using gill nets in several sampling sites. Five gonadal stages were described, based on macroscopic observation of gonad form, size, weight, color and oocyte diameter.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The population was dominated by males (61%) in <em>A. latiscutatus</em> and females (53%) in A. gigas, showing a sex-ratio of 1:1.54 (Chi-square, <em>P </em>&lt; 0.05) and 1:0.88 (<em>P </em>&gt; 0.05), respectively. The length-weight relationship was a positive allometry for <em>A. latiscutatus and A. gigas</em>, and males (35.37 and 35.47 cm, respectively) reached first maturity earlier than females (39.7 and 40.8 cm, respectively). Changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and in stages of gonadal development showed that&nbsp;<em>A. latiscutatus&nbsp;</em>spawned between April and October, while&nbsp;<em>A. gigas&nbsp;</em>spawned in May to November. The peak of condition factor was observed in June (0.68±0.05) and July (0.55±0.04) in females of <em>A. latiscutatus</em> and <em>A. gigas</em>, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Both species, having only one annual breeding season, <em>A. latiscutatus</em> spawns earlier than <em>A. gigas</em>. Coastal fisheries should be restricted in cold season to preserve the ability of broodstock renewal for these species.</p> Pierre Koivogui, Yao Aristide Konan, Bakari Coulibaly, Essetchi Paul Kouamelan, Tidiani Koné ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 05 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 About the Influences of Some Major Biotic Drivers on the Population Dynamics in Host-parasite Systems: Interpretative Lessons from an Extended Nicholson-Bailey Model <p>Population dynamics within host-parasite systems in insects is governed by a series of factors, both endogenous and exogenous. Among them, five factors may be considered as major drivers: the respective inherent rates of increase of the host and of the parasite, the level of resource available to the host, the respective immigration rates of the host and of the parasite. While only the first two (the inherent rates of increase of host and parasite) are considered in the original Nicholson and Bailey model, an extended version of the model includes also the other three parameters, thus providing a broader (although still schematic) approach to the host-parasite population dynamics. A brief analysis of the respective influences of each of these five driving parameters on the main features of host-parasite dynamics is derived accordingly, based upon this extended model. Finally, specific attention is paid to the major concerns due to the cyclic outbreaks of both the host and the parasite, regarding in particular the amplitude, the periodicity and the conditions of onset of the cyclicity. Both the practical aspects of the cyclic regime and its possible adaptative significance are discussed. As a whole, this approach aims to provide some general clues for the interpretation of various features of the host-parasite dynamics, as reported from field observations.</p> Jean Béguinot ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 05 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Agronomic Behavior of Six Saladette Tomato Hybrids Grown under Shade Mesh <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The objective was to evaluate six indeterminate saladette tomato hybrids in Southeast, Coahuila, Mexico. Under shade house covered with anti-aphid mesh, to determine their performance, commercial quality and adaptability.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The experimental design used in each test was completely randomized model with six treatments and three repetitions each. The treatments were hybrids Lubino were Lubino F<sub>1</sub>, Zopilote F<sub>1</sub>, Sahariana F<sub>1</sub>, Raptor F<sub>1</sub>, Quetzal F<sub>1</sub> and RTF-713172 F<sub>1</sub>.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The site was Parras Valley Tomatoes in Parras, Coahuila, México. During april to November 2017.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The distance between the lines were 1.80 m, between the plantpots 36 cm and two plants per plantpots, with approximately 30,000 plants per hectare calculated. The genotypes used were Lubino F<sub>1</sub>, Zopilote F<sub>1</sub>, Sahariana F<sub>1</sub>, Raptor F<sub>1</sub>, Quetzal F<sub>1</sub> and RTF-713172 F<sub>1. </sub>The following agronomic characteristics&nbsp; were evaluates: yield, total number of fruits, average fruit weight, number of fruits per bunch, length between clusters, length of internodes, main stem thickness and commercial quality of fruit.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results indicate that the highest yielding hybrid was Zopilote with 4.3 kg plant<sup>-1</sup>, followed by Saharan, the average weight of the product obtained best in Saharan and Quetzal with 122.33 and 118.33 g respectively, the most compact variety was Zopilote due to the shorter distance between bunches, contrary to what was demonstrated by Lubino.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The best variety for the Southeast of Coahuila is Zopilote F<sub>1</sub>, due to its higher yield and for being a compact plant.</p> María del Pilar Marín Cortez, Neymar Camposeco Montejo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Screening of Common Herbal Medicines as Promising Direct Inhibitors of Sars-Cov-2 in Silico <p><strong>Background:</strong> Molecular docking has been used recently in pharma industry for drug designing, it’s a powerful tool to find ligand-substrate interactions at molecules level. Since urgent need to develop anti-viral drug that target new coronavirus main proteins, in silico docking has been used to achieve this purpose.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Thirteen herbs are known for their antioxidants and antiviral properties have been selected to investigate their abilities in inhibiting SARS-COV2 spike protein and main protease Mpro. pdb files for RBD (Receptor Binding Domain) region of spike protein and for Mpro and mol2 files for all herbs understudy were uploaded for swiss dock online server, the docking results were analyzed using chimera software. Full fitness energy and hydrogens bonds interactions were considered for docking evaluation.&nbsp; Pharma kinetic properties for compounds have good binding results were evaluated through AMES and ADMET tests.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All compounds showed negative full fitness energy that means they are able to complex with both SARS-COV2 spike protein and main protease, however some of the herbs form very powerful hydrogen bonding with the RBD site of the spike protein and the catalytic site of Mpro such as coumarylquinic acid, while stigmasterol has strong binding with the spike protein only. Both compounds appear to be safe drugs for human according to AMES test results.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Coumarylquinic acid and stigmasterol have powerful binding in silico, further in vitro studies include using viral infected human lung cells and testing above compounds ability for inhibiting viral entry and replication should be proceed to confirm the study results.</p> Zahraa Kamaz, Mohammad J. Al- Jassani, Umar Haruna ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP): Comparative Advances over Conventional PCR and Other Molecular Techniques <p>Gene amplification technology is essential in the fields of diagnostic medicine. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is central in the molecular studies and provides ways for diagnostic advancement in the areas. However, the requirement for thermal cycler in a dedicated facility for amplification of target genes in the PCR technique has been a bottleneck to many researchers. The limitations associated with PCR include cost implication, strict expertise necessity and relatively higher turn-around time. The emergence of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in the last two decades assists in bridging the undesirable gaps. This review aims to highlight the natural advantages of the LAMP technique over the existing conventional PCR and other isothermal molecular techniques. Available published articles on LAMP techniques reviewed, listed many outstanding advances of the method in comparison to traditional PCR technique. The mentioned advantages include simplicity, affordability, naked-eye result detection and many more. That made LAMP becomes a rapidly accepted method in the field of molecular diagnosis. Other essential features of LAMP in comparison with other emerging nucleic acid amplification techniques were adequately explained and presented in tabular form for research and quick reference purposes. Though LAMP has some few limitations, its advantages outweigh its flaws by filling the gap in the field of molecular biology diagnostics.</p> Yahaya Hassan, Leslie Thian Lung Than ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 08 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Host Preference, Mode of Damage and Succession of Major Insect Pests of Brinjal <p>Brinjal is one of the most popular solanaceous vegetables worldwide because of its nutritive and nutraceutical values. In recent decades, brinjal cultivation has been experiencing increased biotic and abiotic stresses due to the climate changes, which had affected the cultivation practices, growers’ profit and consumers’ choice to a larger extent. Amongst different insect pests, brinjal shoot and fruit borer (BSFB) is the major one causing significant reduction in economic yield followed by epilachna beetle, aphid, jassid and whitefly. On the other hand, proper knowledge on nature of damage, host preference, and seasonal abundance of insect pests is a pre-requisite for development and deployment of an appropriate, effective and timely management strategy against the pests.&nbsp; A pool of literatures on host preferences, damage pattern and succession of major insect pests of brinjal has been reviewed and presented in this paper.</p> Saifullah Omar Nasif, Shafiquzzaman Siddiquee ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 13 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000